- 1 What does the body produce in insulin-dependent diabetes?
- 2 What are the metabolic effects of insulin?
- 3 What cells are not insulin-dependent?
- 4 What metabolic condition occurs in diabetes?
- 5 What blood sugar level requires insulin?
- 6 Which type of diabetes requires insulin?
- 7 What are the four effects of insulin on lipid metabolism?
- 8 What is the major adverse effect associated with insulin?
- 9 Does insulin increase or decrease metabolism?
- 10 What is the relationship between insulin and potassium?
- 11 What is a normal insulin level?
- 12 What causes cells to become insulin resistant?
- 13 Can diabetes be cured completely?
- 14 What are the five signs of metabolic syndrome?
- 15 What are the 5 risk factors for metabolic syndrome?
What does the body produce in insulin-dependent diabetes?
Type 1 diabetes, once known as juvenile diabetes or insulin-dependent diabetes, is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.
What are the metabolic effects of insulin?
The major effects of insulin on tissues are: (1) Carbohydrate metabolism: (a) It increases the rate of transport of glucose across the cell membrane in adipose tissue and muscle, (b) it increases the rate of glycolysis in muscle and adipose tissue, (c) it stimulates the rate of glycogen synthesis in a number of tissues
What cells are not insulin-dependent?
It should be noted here that there are some tissues that do not require insulin for efficient uptake of glucose: important examples are brain and the liver. This is because these cells don’t use GLUT4 for importing glucose, but rather, another transporter that is not insulin-dependent.
What metabolic condition occurs in diabetes?
Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic disorders of carbohydrate metabolism characterized by high blood glucose levels (hyperglycemia) and usually resulting from insufficient production of the hormone insulin (type 1 diabetes) or an ineffective response of cells to insulin (type 2 diabetes).
What blood sugar level requires insulin?
Insulin therapy will often need to be started if the initial fasting plasma glucose is greater than 250 or the HbA1c is greater than 10%.
Which type of diabetes requires insulin?
People who have type 1 diabetes must take insulin as part of their treatment. Because their bodies can’t make insulin anymore, they need to get the right amount to keep their blood sugar levels in a healthy range.
What are the four effects of insulin on lipid metabolism?
(2) Lipid metabolism: (a) it decreases the rate of lipolysis in adipose tissue and hence lowers the plasma fatty acid level, (b) it stimulates fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in tissues, (c) it increases the uptake of triglycerides from the blood into adipose tissue and muscle, (d) it decreases the rate of
What is the major adverse effect associated with insulin?
Hypoglycemia may occur and is the most common side effect of insulin treatment. Severe, life-threatening allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis, may occur. Hypokalemia (low blood potassium) may occur because insulin stimulates movement of potassium from blood into cells.
Does insulin increase or decrease metabolism?
Insulin’s effect stretches to lipid and protein metabolism as well. It stimulates lipogenesis and protein synthesis and conversely inhibits lipolysis and protein degradation.
What is the relationship between insulin and potassium?
Insulin shifts potassium into cells by stimulating the activity of Na+-H+ antiporter on cell membrane, promoting the entry of sodium into cells, which leads to activation of the Na+-K+ ATPase, causing an electrogenic influx of potassium. IV insulin leads to a dose-dependent decline in serum potassium levels .
What is a normal insulin level?
University of Washington researcher Stephen Guyenet writes that “The average insulin level in the US is 8.8 mIU/ml for men and 8.4 for women.
What causes cells to become insulin resistant?
While genetics, aging and ethnicity play roles in developing insulin sensitivity, the driving forces behind insulin resistance include excess body weight, too much belly fat, a lack of exercise, smoking, and even skimping on sleep. As insulin resistance develops, your body fights back by producing more insulin.
Can diabetes be cured completely?
No cure for diabetes currently exists, but the disease can go into remission. When diabetes goes into remission, it means that the body does not show any signs of diabetes, although the disease is technically still present.
What are the five signs of metabolic syndrome?
The five signs
- A large waist. Carrying excess fat around your waist, in particular, is a large risk factor.
- A high triglyceride level.
- Reduced HDL or “good” cholesterol.
- Increased blood pressure.
- Elevated fasting blood sugar.
What are the 5 risk factors for metabolic syndrome?
Metabolic Risk Factors
- A Large Waistline. Having a large waistline means that you carry excess weight around your waist (abdominal obesity).
- A High Triglyceride Level. Triglycerides are a type of fat found in the blood.
- A Low HDL Cholesterol Level.
- High Blood Pressure.
- High Fasting Blood Sugar.